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The Persian Gulf, Golden waters in Middle East
Persian Gulf

The Persian Gulf, Golden waters in Middle East 

The Persian Gulf is a name of a super important waterway situated in western Asia, between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula. Although some Arabic governments tried to refer it as the “Arabian Gulf” or “the gulf”, only the Persian Gulf has remained its global and official name. The Persian Gulf was a combat zone during the Iran- Iraq war, where both sides were trying to assail each other’s petroleum tankers.
Those attacks carried several environmental consequences causing the most damages to Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. They suffered a shortage of drinking water. The Persian Gulf is an important and strategic waterway due to abundant oil and gas resources. It has diverse and unique wildlife due to its isolation from the international waters by the strait of Hormoz.

• History

• Islamic era

• Geography

• Wildlife


From ancient times to the present day, the Persian Gulf has been a vital area in terms of its economic position. Many kings have considered it as a proper way to expand their business transactions. The earliest evidence of human presence on its islands dates back to the middle Paleolithic at Qeshm island.
Darius the Great, the Achaemenid king of Iran, ordered the expansion of the Suez Canal. So, Iranian merchant ships could reach Egypt and the Mediterranean from the Persian sea and the Red sea. According to history, the Parthians developed their trade and fiercely competed with Romans. They used the Persian Gulf as a transit route.
This development continued during the Sassanid era. For example, the port of “Saif” (around Bushehr) became a major trading center. In the historical documents of china from the fourth to the twelfth centuries, the names of Pars, Fars, and Iran are widely used. This wide usage indicates an enormous amount of business relationships.

History of Persian Gulf
History of Persian Gulf

Islamic era

In the early 16th century, Portuguese and Ottomans started a battle up the coast of the Persian Gulf on April 29,1602. Shah Abbas, the Persian emperor of the Safavid Persian Empire, expelled Both the Portuguese and Ottomans from Bahrain. To celebrate this day, people commemorated April 29 as the National Persian Gulf day in Iran.
Shah Abbas took the Hormoz island from the Portuguese with the support of Great Britain. Consequently, most of the transactions diverted to the town of “Bandar Abbas”. Therefore, the Persian Gulf was presented as an important economic route by Persians for successful commerce with other countries. In World War II, the western Allies transported equipment to the Soviets against the Nazi invasion through it.
Old geographers in naming lands, seas, rivers, mountains have been considering some roots. Lakes and seas followed more solid roots and most of them were named after the county and the laud near and around them. So, the waters around the Persian empire were called the Persian Sea or the Persian Gulf. In ancient times none of today’s small and large countries existed. They all were part of Persia. Even powerful countries in the past like Romans required permission by the Persian Empire to enter the Persian Gulf.


The Persian Gulf Flows Eastward through the strait of Hormoz and the Oman sea. And it flows from the west to the Arvand Rud river delta. Iran, Oman, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Bahrain are on the Persian Gulf coast.
The Persian Gulf and its coastal areas have the world’s largest source of petroleum. Geologists believe that about 500,000 years ago the first form of it was shaped along the southern plains of Iran. In the beginning, it was very extensive. So, by the end of the third geological period, most of western Iran’s plain was under the waters in the Zagros mountains.
In the Persian Gulf, there are numerous small and uninhabited islands. Each of these small islands has geographical and strategic importance at the regional level, and even worldwide. These islands include Qeshm, Kish, Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb and Hengam administered by Iran Bubiyan administered by Kuwait, Tarot administered by Saudi Arabia.

Geography of Persian Gulf
Geography of Persian Gulf


The Persian Gulf is a fertile habitat for some of the most magnificent marine animals and plants. Along the Mediterranean region including the Persian Gulf and the Red sea, numerous dolphins and finless porpoises live in the waters while larger whales are rare today. It is also home to many birds, migratory and locals.
There is a great variation in color, size, and type of birds that know the Persian Gulf as their home. There is also a large range of fish and reefs in different colors and sizes. These reefs are primarily rocky, but there are a few coral reefs too.
The Persian Gulf is the heart of relationships between Europe, Africa south Asia. It is the largest and the most important communication center between the three continents. It is a part of a communication system including the Atlantic, Mediterranean, Red and Indian ocean. Overall, The Persian Gulf is vital and sensitive water in the world in terms of geography, politics, energy, history, and civilization.

Wildlife of Persian Gulf
Wildlife of Persian Gulf

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